Monday, January 20, 2020

Skinheads in the Antelope Valley :: essays papers

Skinheads in the Antelope Valley William Finnegan's essay "The Unwanted" explains the history and make-up of the Antelope Valley and then explores the lives of some teenage citizens in order to discover reasons that two rival gangs have such a significant role in the community and on its people. Absent parents and lack of education are just two factors facing teens that ultimately led the Los Angeles Suburb into becoming a society where Skinheads and Boneheads are a norm and accepted as a part of everyday life. C. Wright Mills' idea of the sociological perspective, looking past the facades, is useful when analyzing the micro; individual, and macro; broad, causes of teens becoming skinheads. Each day America seems to become more and more diverse. Some people learn to accept the fact that America is made up of many different ethnic groups, while others believe the only ethnic group should be their own. There are various reasons for discrimination and it is a very controversial issue. In Finnegan's article he describes two gangs with opposing views concerning racism and how each group expresses their beliefs. The racist and anti-racist beliefs don't always end at the individual. Death is an all too common end and when an opinion becomes life threatening a problem arises. According to Finnegan, one of the two major gangs that occupy the streets of Lancaster and the Antelope Valley is, "a white-supremacist skinhead gang, the Nazi Low Riders (N.L.R.'s)" and the other is, "their rival gang of anti-racist skinheads, the Sharps" (1998, p.88). One major quality the two gangs share is their lack of education. Most, if not all, of the teens Finnegan interviewed, dropped out of school, even though later some used other means of getting a high school diploma or acquiring a higher education. Also it appears both gangs tend to resolve their issues with violence. Most people would agree that some violence is in everyone, but it seems that well educated people often find other means to conquer their problems or go about solving them. Through history knowledge has proved to be an unavoidable part of life. As children in the community began dropping out of schools in vast numbers these kids were forced to, willingly or not, gain knowledge elsewhere (1998). A macro cause for the growing numbers of students dropping out of school and joining the gangs, could be that the ideas and values of those gangs quickly spread through the streets and classrooms. This Leads the teenagers to make decisions about wether or not they agree with the

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Disease in the News Critical Appraisal

There has been a rise in the number of cases of HIV/AIDS in men who have sex with men in the US. Trends suggest that between the years 2001 to 2004, the number of HIV/AIDS cases is rising in African American and Hispanic populations compared to the White population. The survival rates after 3 years were the lowest for men belonging to the African American and the Hispanic community compared to the White community. Since, the year 1999, there has been a rise in the number of cases of HIV/AIDS especially in men who have sex with other men.The article is a thoroughly peer-reviewed journal suggesting that the information is current, evidence-based, validated and researched carefully. The authors of the article include Hall, H. I. , Byers, R. H. , Ling, Q. , and Espinoza, L. They work for the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, which is a unit of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, US. The journal has given the details including the contact address and the email ID of the authors thus permitting clearance of queries and doubts. The authors are well versed and experienced in the field of HIV/AIDS.Hall and Byers have completed their PhD, Ling has done MS, and Espinoza has completed DDS. The authors are from various groups, and hence they would express the problems of these groups in their work. Each of the authors has played a different role in bringing out the journal. The writing, origin of the study, designing of the study, review and the interpretation has been done by Hall. Major contributions of the writings and modeling of the data has been done by Byers. Ling has performed analysis of the data and the data progression details.Espinoza has done the interpretation and discussion of the data. As this study was just about collecting data and not performing a clinical trial, it did not involve following a protocol. The article has been broken into various subtopics including abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, conclusion and references. Credential web sites such as Pub med and the CDC have also cited the article. The article is about the diagnosis of HIV in the male homosexual population, and determining the rate at which the disease progresses.The researchers are interested on working with this topic as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has seemed effective in delaying the symptoms of the disease and the development of fatal outcomes from the disease. In the 1990’s, there was a reduction in the mortality rates arising from AIDS, due to development of HAART. This therapy is able to reduce the viral load. Since the year 1999, there has been a rise in the number of cases of HIV/AIDS due to the increase in homosexual men amongst certain segments of the population.Another indicator of the trend of men having sex with other men was the rise in the number of cases of syphilis in the male homosexual population. The cases of HIV/AIDS were especially high in men below the age of 30 years. In o ther parts of the world, the results obtained from similar studies were different. For example, in the UK, it was found that the high incidences of HIV/AIDS were observed in men who had sex with men between the ages of 25 to 44. The incidences of HIV/AIDS increased in higher numbers in the African-American and Latin populations compared to the Whites.It was about 10 and 3 times higher. Before this study was conducted, HIV/AIDS was not detected in a high proportion of the study model. The Whites were more aware of their HIV status compared to the Hispanics and the African-American population. This suggests that the Whites are more likely to start HAART faster and develop better outcomes with the disease. The data was collected for this study by the HIV surveillance system in place. Several statistical methods such as Poisson regression was utilized to determine the HIV diagnosis rates.The study demonstrated that higher rates of HIV/AIDS were observed in homosexual men belonging to Af rican-American and Hispanic background compared to other segments of the population. Besides, the survival rates after 3 years was also lower the same populations. HIV progressed faster in Hispanics and African population. The article talks about a specific population, namely the homosexual men. The geographical area of this study was limited to the United States. However, the results of the study were compared to other countries such as the United Kingdom.The various ethnic groups that were studied included Hispanics, African-American and Whites. The CDC performed the study. The article does make claims of the treatment. In this case, it is HAART to treat HIV/AIDS. HAART plays a major role in reducing the mortality and morbidity from HIV. The study picks up some evidence available from 1996-1999 in which HAART was utilized to reduce the transmission of HIV infection. This may be in the fact that HAART helps to reduce the viral load in infected people.The article speaks of the ongoi ng emphasis given to the Governments Healthy People 2010 policy, and the need to reduce the transmission of HIV infection. The article also aims to reduce the transmission of HIV/AIDS in the homosexual male population especially. There are various strategies suggested for treatment including prevention, early diagnosis, HAART therapy, etc. The article has used about 48 current and relevant journals written by authors whose credentials are also good. The user can access the abstract of the references by clicking on the link provided. References: Espinoza, L., Hall, H. I., Campsmith, M. L. et al (2005), â€Å"Trends in HIV/AIDS Diagnoses — 33 States, 2001—2004,† CDC MMWR, 54(45), 1149-1153. Hall, H. I., Byers, R. H., Ling, Q. et al (2007), â€Å"Racial/Ethnic and Age Disparities in HIV Prevalence and Disease Progression Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in the United States.† AJPH, 97(6), 1060-1066.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Battle of Shiloh in the Civil War

The Battle of Shiloh was fought April 6-7, 1862, and was an early engagement of the Civil War (1861-1865). Advancing into Tennessee, Major General Ulysses S. Grants troops were attacked by the Confederate Army of Mississippi. Taken by surprise, Union forces were driven back towards the Tennessee River. Able to hold, Grant was reinforced during the night of April 6/7 and launched a massive counterattack in the morning. This drove the Confederates from the field and secured a victory for the Union. The bloodiest battle of the war to date, the losses at Shiloh stunned the public but were far lower than the battles that would come later in the conflict. Lead-up to the Battle In the wake of the Union victories at Forts Henry and Donelson in February 1862, Major General Ulysses S. Grant pressed up the Tennessee River with the Army of West Tennessee. Halting at Pittsburg Landing, Grant was under orders to link up with Major General Don Carlos Buells Army of the Ohio for a thrust against the Memphis and Charleston Railroad. Not expecting a Confederate attack, Grant ordered his men to bivouac and commenced a regimen of training and drill. Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant. Photograph Courtesy of the National Archives Records Administration While the bulk of the army remained at Pittsburg Landing, Grant dispatched Major General Lew Wallaces division several miles north to Stoney Lonesome. Unbeknownst to Grant, his Confederate opposite number, General Albert Sidney Johnston had concentrated his departments forces at Corinth, MS. Intending to attack the Union camp, Johnstons Army of Mississippi departed Corinth on April 3 and encamped three miles from Grants men. Planning to move forward the next day, Johnston was forced to delay the attack forty-eight hours. This delay led his second-in-command, General P.G.T. Beauregard, to advocate cancelling the operation as he believed the element of surprise had been lost. Not to be deterred, Johnston led his men out of camp early on April 6. General P.G.T. Beauregard. Photograph Courtesy of the National Archives Records Administration Fast Facts: Battle of Shiloh Conflict: Civil War (1861-1865)Dates: April 6-7, 1862Armies Commanders:UnionMajor General Ulysses S. GrantMajor General Don Carlos BuellArmy of West Tennessee - 48,894 menArmy of the Ohio - 17, 918 menConfederateGeneral Albert Sidney JohnstonGeneral Pierre G.T. BeauregardArmy of Mississippi - 44,699 menCasualties:Union: 1,754 killed, 8,408 wounded, and 2,885 captured/missingConfederate: 1,728 killed, 8,012 wounded, 959 captured/missing The Confederate Plan Johnstons plan called for the weight of the assault to strike the Union left with the goal of separating it from the Tennessee River and driving Grants army north and west into the swamps of Snake and Owl Creeks. Around 5:15 AM, the Confederates encountered a Union patrol and the fighting began. Surging forward, the corps of Major Generals Braxton Bragg and William Hardee formed a single, long battle line and struck the unprepared Union camps. As they advanced, units became entangled and difficult to control. Meeting with success, the attack drove into the camps as the Union troops attempted to rally. The Confederates Strike Around 7:30, Beauregard, who had been instructed to remain in the rear, sent forward the corps of Major General Leonidas Polk and Brigadier General John C. Breckinridge. Grant, who was downstream at Savannah, TN when the battle began, raced back and reached the field around 8:30. Bearing the brunt of the initial Confederate attack was Brigadier General William T. Shermans division which anchored the Union right. Though forced back, he worked tirelessly to rally his men and mounted a strong defense. Major General John McClernand. Photograph Courtesy of the Library of Congress To his left, Major General John A. McClernands division was also forced to stubbornly give ground. Around 9:00, as Grant was recalling Wallaces division and attempting to hasten the lead division of Buells army, troops from Brigadier Generals W.H.L. Wallaces and Benjamin Prentiss division occupied a strong defensive position in an oak thicket dubbed the Hornets Nest. Fighting valiantly, they repulsed several Confederate attacks as Union troops on either side were forced back. The Hornets Nest held for seven hours and only fell when fifty Confederate guns were brought to bear. Johnston Lost Around 2:30 PM, the Confederate command structure was badly shaken when Johnston was mortally wounded in the leg. Ascending to command, Beauregard continued to push his men forward and Colonel David Stuarts brigade achieved a breakthrough on the Union left along the river. Pausing to reform his men, Stuart failed to exploit the gap and moved his men towards the fighting at the Hornets Nest. With the collapse of the Hornets Nest, Grant formed a strong position extending west from the river and north up the River Road with Sherman on the right, McClernand in the center, and the remnants of Wallace and Brigadier General Stephen Hurlbuts division on the left. Attacking this new Union line, Beauregard had little success and his men were beaten back by heavy fire and naval gunfire support. With dusk approaching, he elected to retire for the night with the goal of returning to the offensive in the morning. Between 6:30-7:00 PM, Lew Wallaces division finally arrived after an unnecessarily circuitous march. While Wallaces men joined the Union line on the right, Buells army began arriving and reinforced his left. Realizing that he now possessed a sizable numerical advantage, Grant planned a massive counterattack for the next morning. Major General Don Carlos Buell. Photograph Courtesy of the Library of Congress Grant Strikes Back Advancing at dawn, Lew Wallaces men opened the attack around 7:00 AM. Pushing south, Grant and Buells troops drove the Confederates back as Beauregard worked to stabilize his lines. Hampered by the previous days intermingling of units, he was not able to form his entire army until around 10:00 AM. Pushing forward, Buells men retook the Hornets Nest by late morning but met strong counterattacks by Breckinridges men. Grinding on, Grant was able to retake his old camps around noon, forcing Beauregard to launch a series of attacks to protect access to the roads leading back to Corinth. By 2:00 PM, Beauregard realized that the battle was lost and began ordering his troops to retreat south. Breckinridges men moved into a covering position, while Confederate artillery was massed near Shiloh Church to protect the withdrawal. By 5:00 PM, most of Beauregards men had departed the field. With dusk approaching and his men exhausted, Grant elected not to pursue. A Terrible Toll The bloodiest battle of the war to date, Shiloh cost the Union 1,754 killed, 8,408 wounded, and 2,885 captured/missing. The Confederates lost 1,728 killed (including Johnston), 8,012 wounded, 959 captured/missing. A stunning victory, Grant was initially vilified for being taken by surprise, while Buell and Sherman were hailed as saviors. Pressured to remove Grant, President Abraham Lincoln famously replied, I cant spare this man; he fights. When the smoke of battle cleared, Grant was praised for his cool demeanor in saving the army from disaster. Regardless, he was temporarily relegated to a supporting role when Major General Henry Halleck, Grants immediate superior, took direct command for an advance against Corinth. Grant regained his army that summer when Halleck was promoted to general-in-chief of the Union armies. With Johnstons death, command of the Army of Mississippi was given to Bragg who would lead it in the battles of Perryville, Stones River, Chickamauga, and Chattanooga.

Friday, December 27, 2019

Political and Religious Ambitions Dante’s Justification...

In The Inferno, Dante descends through the nine circles of Hell, encountering increasingly serious sins, most of which are crimes. The levels of Hell can be interpreted as a gradation of crimes, with penalties in proportion to their relative gravity of sin. While crimes are transgressions against human law, Dante’s Christian orthodox ambitions translate the treatment of these seemingly earthly crimes as sins, transgressions against divine law. For the purposes of this paper, the two terms can be used interchangeably because Dante’s perception of crimes on Earth is in parallel to the punishment of those crimes as sins in Hell. For Dante, the most punishable sins are those of betrayal. With a lucid examination of Dante’s political†¦show more content†¦The notion that the sinners Virgil and Dante meet are historical figures tempts readers to interpret Dante’s symbolism in a historical sense. Paul G. Chevigny, for example, argues that Dante’s v iew on betrayal originates from his ethical concerns in a â€Å"political milieu† (Chevigny, 790). For Dante, the most severe crime was the most human, the one that most clearly exhibits the misuse of free will: the betrayal of trust. Dante believes that crimes of betrayal were the most serious not only because they required the most deliberate practice of free will, but also because they did the most damage to the ethical net of obligations in society. As previously mentioned, Dante’s political role in Florence established his ideal of a stable society built among the trust of political leaders and their followers. At the same time, however, the religious function of Dante’s poem must not be neglected. In the opening lines of The Inferno, Dante embarks on a journey and finds himself â€Å"in a dark wood, for the straight way was lost† (Inferno, I, 2-3). Dante’s description of the dark wood indicates the lack of God’s light, and thus inform s readers of the life he lived in the condition of sin. These opening lines establish the religious context for the poem, as Dante has deviated from â€Å"the straight way†, the way to God. Furthermore, Lee H. Yearley contributes to this religious perspective by

Thursday, December 19, 2019

The Aspen Education Group - 1185 Words

Review of the Literature The Aspen education group in conjunction with The American Academy of Pediatrics, reported that 36.9 percent of 14-year-olds have engaged in sexual intercourse. This equates to more than one out of three teenagers being involved in sexual behavior. It was also reported from this organization that high school youth were reported to have been sexually active at a percentage of 66.4%. This is alarming and reflects the fact that teenagers are sexual active at extremely high rates. The public have been made known to the fact by government sponsored initiatives that sexual activity amongst youth has steadily increased over the past thirty years. Teenagers have an intense interest†¦show more content†¦Being correctly educated comes in the form of proper contraceptive measures such as condom use, birth control, or just abstaining from sex period. An author by the name of Dr. Bogle, wrote a book about the changing culture of teenage hooking up. Hooking up in the 60s used to be define d as making out. â€Å"Hooking Up: Sex, Dating and Relationships on Campus† (N.Y.U. Press, 2008) stated that dating rules between teenagers began to change in the 1960s. After this time what could be seen as a normality with teen dating swiftly and significantly changed. Today, dating and hooking up is totally different from what some parents and grandparents defined as dating and hooking up. The birth rate among teenagers in the United States rose three percent in 2006. This was reported as the first such increase since 1991. Two-thirds of the 65 million people living with incurable diseases are aged between 15 and 24. The most common STD is the Human Papillomavirus, Human Papillomavirus alone leads 90 percent of all cervical cancers (CDC). The vast majority of teenage pregnancies are unplanned and unwanted according to the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. This is disturbing because we have children being born into homes were the parents are still growing up and there is a lack of job stability, and education. Pregnancy puts teenagers in a likely percentile of not

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Supply Chain Management Practice of Ikea †

Question: Discuss about the Supply Chain Management Practice of Ikea. Answer: Overview Of The Case Supply chain management is regarded as the process of managing all interrelated business activities through which flow of goods and services are managed. Further, it is considered as the chain through which products are purchased for production purpose and ultimately it reaches to the target markets who are the ultimate buyers(Waters Rinsler, 2014). For every type of business operating in the market, it is necessary to manage its supply chain in an effective manner so that right kind of good can be offered to the customer as per their expectation. The present report is based on analyzingsupply chain management practice of Ikea where the company has 27 trading offices in 23 countries, 15 customer distribution centers and 33 distribution centers. The Company is headquartered in Netherlands that is indulged into the practice of designing and selling ready to assemble furniture, home accessories and kitchen appliances. The environment where Ikea operates is highly competitive, and its main competitors are online and retail furniture stores(Sandybayev, 2017). The main focus of the organization is on offering the wide range of products that are of high quality. Considering the supply chain practice of Ikea, it undertakes different stages and involves primary, secondary and tertiary sectors that are involved in procurement of raw material, production, distribution, retail sales, etc. Competitive Strategy Of Ikea Considering the supply chain practice of Ikea where operations are carried out with the help of three different stages that involves primary, secondary and tertiary. Through effectivemanagement of supply chain, the key goal of business is to ensure customer satisfaction and providing them remarkable purchase experience. In the stores of Ikea different products are available where they can easily choose the best product that meets with their requirement. The packaging of the product is also done in the different manner that contains instructions and all the necessary information regarding products. Along with this additional facilities are provided to the customers that involve children play area, food court, mini cinema, etc(Jonsson, Rudberg, Holmberg, 2013). This strategy allows the company to influence purchase behavior of its customers. The key competitive strategy undertaken by Ikea is product diversification and cost leadership which has been considered with the help of its supply chain practice. The company strongly focuses on decreasing cost of production with the help of reducing wastage, decreasing operational error, integration of stakeholders, etc. Apart from this product diversification as one of the strategy is also employed where with the help of innovation new furniture items are developed. So, this competitive strategy has allowed the company to deal with the issue of competition prevailing in the market(Stadtler, 2015). Supply chain practice of Ikea starts with sales and demand planning followed by marketing planning and supplier capacity and load planning. All these activities are undertaken with the motive to provide proper convenience to the target market, and it has enhanced the overall performance of Ikea in the market. Key Points Of Ikea Supply Chain Above shown is the supply chain of Ikea that highlights the key activities involving central planning, distribution services, and retail. The suppliers of the company are present in 50 countries, and Ikea has developed the strong relationship with them through trust, transparency and another form of aspects(Sezen, 2008). The key points associated with the supply chain practice of Ikea are as follows: Purchasing and logistics activities are integrated within the business Segregation of the process into primary, secondary and tertiary sectors that is engaged into production, distribution, raw material and retail sales to the end customers. Emphasize on key aspects such as sustainability and quality, affordability, accessibility etc. At the time of dealing with partners main stress is on efficient production and working a lot to reduce logistics cost(Mangan Lalwani, 2016). Raw materials are sourced from the suppliers in the market at lowest price. Suppliers adhere to the IWAY code through which quality standards are met by the company. Adoption of automated system to manage inventory and this leads to efficient utilization of the main resources of the business. Activities that are associated with the order fulfillment process are carried out by Ikea range and supply where main tasks are plan, source, make, deliver, return and enable Ikea relies on e-wheel tool with the motive to evaluate the environmental impact of its products. Around 50% of Ikea 9,500 products are manufactured with the help of wood or wood fibers. This is one of the most effective resource form sustainability point of view(Lockamy III McCormack, 2004) Many designs of the products are developed by the company where the main motive behind the same is to reduce the use of materials. For instance some tables are manufactured with the help of recycled plastic etc. Stores of the company add value to the produced goods and this allows in providing remarkable experience to the customers in every possible manner. So, these are some of the key highlights of the Ikeas supply chain that makes it different from other companies operating in the market. How Company Delivers Value In order to deliver remarkable value to the customers, various strategies have been employed by Ikea. For determining the level of customer satisfaction, various aspects are undertaken by the company such as returned products, number of products and the recommendations received from the customers(Jacobs, Chase, Lummus, 2011). The company delivers value by providing proper assistance to the target market in the form of facilities such as food court, mini area, supervised children play area, etc. This supports in providing the high level of experience to the customers in every possible manner and enhances company performance. Apart from this, packaging of the products is done conveniently through self-assembly flat packs that contain necessary instructions. The main strategies of the company involve cost leadership and product diversification. This is the main reason due to which majority of the customers are highly satisfied with the product range of Ikea and in turn company is able to gain the competitive edge through this(Halldrsson, Kotzab, Skjtt-Larsen, 2009). The actual value is delivered to the target market with the help of high-quality product of different designs that are manufactured with the help of advanced technology. So, these are some of the key methods employed by Ikea in order to deliver value to the target market. Order Processing Strategy Of Ikea The order processing strategy of Ikea takes into consideration various tasks that are carried out by Ikea. The plan is the first stage where Ikea identifies the production requirement as per demand for its products in the market and determining the relevant cost along with the logistics required. Next crucial stage is the source where company orders the raw materials required from different suppliers(Ganesan, George, Jap, Palmatier, Weitz, 2009). Make is the next stage where the resources present are allocated in the production process where manufacturing takes place in line with the quality along with the quantity requirement. Further, deliver is another stage where large numbers of distribution processes are undertaken with the motive to deliver products to the sales outlets, storage units to the end customers(Ayers, 2006). Return is another stage where customers are provided warranty for the products they purchase. In case if any product has any default then it is possible for them to return the goods and through this company provides them appropriate convenience. At last is the enable stage where integration of all the members in the supply chainmanagement process takes place, and it is ensured whether IWAY code is appropriately followed or not(Chopra Meindl, 2007). All the staff members are involved in the innovation process, and this contributes a lot to the success of the enterprise. These are some of the key stages of the ordering process of Ikea through which company is able to deliver appropriate products to the target market and has allowed performing better as compared with other companies operating in the market. Summary Of The Case And Recommendation The entire case has supported in knowing about the supply chain management practices of Ikea that are quite effective. The key stages such as primary, secondary and tertiary are effective through which right kind of product is delivered to the target market. Apart from this, for delivering high value to the target market additional facilities are rendered to the customers such as mini cinema, children play area etc. Further, company welcomes suggestions from its customers that are associated with the product development. Moreover, some effective ways are present through which Ikea can improve its supply chain practice and they are as follows: Ikea supply chain strategy must be more flexible so that it is possible to change its supply chain practices frequently and in lesser period of time. Heavy reliance must be on advanced tools and techniques so that efficient production can be carried out that can save cost and in turn product of unique design can be developed easily which is beneficial for the company and customers also. A Large number of factors are present that influences supply chain strategy of Ikea and it is necessary for the company to ensure well in advance that all the influencing factors are well maintained and satisfied too. References Ayers, J. B. (2006). Handbook of supply chain management. Florida: CRC Press. Chopra, S., Meindl, P. (2007). Supply chain management. Strategy, planning operation. Das summa summarum des management , 265-275. Ganesan, S., George, M., Jap, S., Palmatier, R. W., Weitz, B. (2009). Supply chain management and retailer performance: emerging trends, issues, and implications for research and practice. Journal of Retailing, , 84-94. Halldrsson, ., Kotzab, H., Skjtt-Larsen, T. (2009). Supply chain management on the crossroad to sustainability: a blessing or a curse?. . Logistics Research , 83-94. Jacobs, F. R., Chase, R. B., Lummus, R. R. (2011). Operations and supply chain management . New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Jonsson, P., Rudberg, M., Holmberg, S. (2013). Centralised supply chain planning at IKEA. . Supply Chain Management: An International Journal , 337-350. Lockamy III, A., McCormack, K. (2004). The development of a supply chain management process maturity model using the concepts of business process orientation. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, , 272-278. Mangan, J., Lalwani, C. (2016). Global logistics and supply chain management. New jersey: John Wiley Sons. Sandybayev, A. (2017). Strategic Supply Chain Management Implementation: Case Study of IKEA. Noble International Journal of Business and Management Research , 5-9. Sezen, B. (2008). Relative effects of design, integration and information sharing on supply chain performance. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal , 233-240. Stadtler, H. (2015). Supply chain management: An overview. In Supply chain management and advanced planning (pp. 3-28). Berlin: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Waters, D., Rinsler, S. (2014). Global logistics: New directions in supply chain management. London: Kogan Page Publishers.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Proxemics Essays - Nonverbal Communication, Social Psychology

Proxemics Spacial Relations Spacial relations is a complex subject that can be interpreted in many different ways. A clear explanation of spatial relations is easily understood with the study of proxemics. So what is proxemics? Well the term proxemics came from E.T. Hall, a researcher in 1963. Proxemics is the study of the nature, degree, and effect of the spatial separation individuals naturally maintain (as in various social and interpersonal situations) and of how this separation relates to environmental and cultural factors. Proxemics is made up of featured spaces: fixed space, semi-fixed, and informal. Space around a person is set up into zones representing comfort and non-comfort. Fixed spaces are areas that are unmovable such as buildings and offices. Many simple things can change a comfortable zone in a fixed area such as color. The use of color can have a major impact on our comfort level. Restaurants, for example, focus on peoples comfort level with how they paint their buildings. Fast food such as McDonalds or Taco Bell cause people to rush in, eat fast, and leave without a nice place to sit down because of their bright colors. Bright colors are disturbing to the customers and even the workers. Other restaurants such as Ruby Tuesdays and Apple Bees stick with a nice color scheme that is both darker, mellow, and come off as a nice place to enjoy your food. Restaurants like these have a higher employee turnover than fast food in the food service industry. Semi-fixed spaces serves as movable areas such as furniture. Office desks can be organized to a persons comfort zone. Chairs and desks are just physical barriers but can be broken to protect personal space. As you might notice on a TV show or at a job interview, two chairs are usually always on an angle and no more than 1 ? feet from the main desk. This set up helps keep a balance of dominance. A person at a desk compared to a person standing in front of him may feel less dominant and unequal. Other areas of an office, such as lamps and filing cabinet are usually placed in the corners because small areas, like corners, make a person feel enclosed and small. Rearranging of furniture in an area helps keep balance over the persons personal space and semi-fixed spaces. Informal spaces is personal territory, and a big part of proxemics. Personal territory is made up of four categories: public, social, personal, and intimate. All of these spaces range differently in amount of space. For instance public spaces ranges from 12-25 feet. Social space ranges from 4-10 feet. Personal space ranges from 2-4 feet and intimate space ranges out to one foot and is used mostly while touching. Personal space, most commonly used, can vary both culturally and ethnically. In Saudi Arabia, their social space is equal to our intimate space. If we were to back away from a person, we would be known as rude. In the Netherlands, their social space is equal to our personal space. Anglos communicate with each other, usually maintaining a distance of 36 to 48 inches, while Hispanic tend to stand closer to each other at about l 8 inches. Anglos draw away during a conversation because they seem uncomfortable when they are too close to a conversation partner. The most widespread symbol of informal spaces across the world is a hand shake. For example, a handshake in Spain is usually a double grip, but to a German, it would cause confusion. Equally an even more stronger shake by a German would cause a Spaniard to get the idea of being over-friendly. Individuals perceive a distance that they feel is appropriate for different type of messages and personal interaction. A violation of such space can cause serious effects on communication. A result of violation of personal space is social anxiety. Social anxiety is the third largest psychological problem in the United States today. Social anxiety is the fear of social situations that involve interaction with others. Someone with social anxiety, for example, would feel uncomfortable with someone standing to close or thinking everyone is looking at them, and feeling self conscience. A person feeling this way relates back to personal space, and